Chart of the
Powers Granted to the Government
by the People

The Constitution for the United States of America

Article Sect. Para. Text of Article Powers Granted
Preamble - -

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

This is the enacting clause for the Law established by We, the People of the United States, for our public servants to follow in managing the affairs of the government for us. It defines the purposes for which the government is created, but does not grant any powers. The powers granted by the people are defined in the body of the Constitution.

1
Legislative
Branch
1 -

All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

This paragraph simply says that all of whatever power to make laws will be granted by the Constititon will be vested in Congress, and defines the structure of Congress.

1 2 1

The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislature.

There are no powers of any kind granted in this paragraph. This merely defines the makeup of the House of Representatives.

1 2 2

No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

No powers are granted in this paragraph. It simply defines the requirements to be a member of the House of Representatives.

1 2 3

[Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.] The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.
Changed by Section 2 of the 14th Amendment

This paragraph mandates a census be taken every 10 years and grants Congress the power to determine the manner in which the census will be done. It does not grant any power over the People.

1 2 4

When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

This paragraph establishes how vacancies in the House of Representative will be filled before an election can be held. It does not grant any power over the People.

1 2 5

The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment

The empowers the House of Representatives to choose their own officers. It does not grant any power over the People.

1 3 1

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, [chosen by the Legislature thereof,] for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.
Changed by the first paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment

This paragraph originally established that Senators would be chosen the the State Legislature. This method of selection of Senators was created by our Founding Fathers after a lengthy bitter debate. The 17th Amendment undid the compromise that was reached and made the Senate subject to the political whims of the People. This action destroyed the State's ability to protect itself against the Federal Government. No powers over the People are granted

1 3 2

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; [and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.]
Changed by the second paragraph of the Seventeenth Amendment

This provision created a situation where one third of the Senators are appointed every two years.

1 3 3

No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

This paragraph establishes the requirements for being a Senator. It does not grant any power over the People.

1 3 4

The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The provision appoints the Vice-President of the United States as the President of the Senate. It does not grant any power over the People.

1 3 5

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the office of the President of the United States.

Just like the House, the Senate is permitted to choose their own officers. No powers over the People are granted.

1 3 6

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present.

The Senate is given the sole power to try all impeachments. Impeachment does not apply to the People and so no powers over the People are granted

1 3 7

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

The Impeachment Powers are restricted to removal from office. If a crime has been committed, then the person who has been removed from office may be charged with the crime - but not by the Senate. Whenever the Constitution indicates trial according to law it is referring to Common Law, which is the basis for all of our laws. Even if the government were able to bring charges this paragraph does not grant any power over the rest of the People.

1 4 1

The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

Congress may alter the manner of holding elections for Congress, except as to places. No powers over the People are granted

1 4 2

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be [on the first Monday in December,] unless they by law appoint a different day.
Changed by Section 2 of the Twentieth Amendment

This mandates that Congress will meet at least once a year. It does not grant any power over the People.

1 5 1

Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each House may provide.

Each House of Congress is given the power to judge the elections of its own members. No powers over the People are granted.

1 5 2

Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member.

Each House of Congress is given the power to determine their own rules of proceedings. No powers over the People are granted

1 5 3

Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgement require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

Each House of Congress is mandated to keep a journal of its proceedings and to publish the same. No powers over the People are granted

1 5 4

Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

This paragraph establishes the procedure for adjournment of Congress. It does not grant any power over the People

1 6 1

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

The Senators and Representatives shall be paid for their services. No powers over the People are granted.

1 6 2

No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the United States, which shall have increased during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

The provisions in this paragraph were written to eliminate any possibility of a conflict of interest. Our Founding Fathers wanted to be sure that no member of Congress had any prior commitments to any cause. Since Attorneys are officers of the Court, under the Judicial Branch, this provision prohibits them from being a member of Congress. No powers over the People are granted.

1 7 1

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

When the Constitution was first written, the Senate was no elected by the People. This provision assured the People that all expenditures were proposed by people they elected. No powers over the People are granted.

1 7 2

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the president of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration, two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the president within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

This paragraph establishes the procedure to create a law. It is interesting note that the Constitution does not require an enacting clause even though they have been in use for thousands of years. Section 1 of this Article stated that all Legislative powers were given to Congress. This simply defines the way those powers may be used. This paragraph does not grant any power over the People. Congress may only pass laws in compliance with the powers granted to the government.

1 7 3

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill

This provision reinforces the fact that the President of the United States must be involved as part of the law making process. No powers over the People are granted

1 8 1

The Congress shall have the power:

to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

This Section, Number 8, defines the Powers Granted to Congress.

The taxes, duties, imposts, and excises mentioned in this paragraph are referring to fees collected from companies that are involved in duties, imposts, and excises involved in importing and exporting goods to and from the Country. They do not apply to private individuals. If they did apply to private individuals the Income Tax Amendment would not have been required. This paragraph grants no power over the People.

1 8 2

To borrow money on the credit of the United States:

Congress is granted the power to borrow money to perform the tasks mandated by the People. No powers over the People are granted in this paragraph.

1 8 3

To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes:

The Foreign Nations, the several States, and the Indian Tribes are all fictitious entities that have been created by their Citizens. These fictitious entities are all mentioned in the "same breath" and Our Government's treatment of them must be the same for all of them. If our Government has the power to control our commerce, then it has the power to control the commerce of the people in Germany, France, England, and every other country around the world. Our Government was only given the power to deal with any commerce that occurs between itself and the fictitious entities mentioned. The People are not Foreign Nations, States, or Indian Tribes and their commerce is not included under the terms of this paragraph. This paragraph grants no power of any kind over the People, or their business activities.

1 8 4

To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States:

Congress is granted the power to establish uniform rules for the People to follow. If the rules varied from State to State the People would flock to the State they felt had the most favorable laws. This paragraph grants no power over the People.

1 8 5

To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures:

The government is granted the power to coin money. When the Constitution was written the Founding Fathers specifically withheld the power to print paper money. By fixing the standards of weights and measures the government will be able to regulate the value of coins used in trade. No powers over the People are granted.

1 8 6

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States:

This is the first place where the government is given any power over the people. Unless you are a counterfeiter you are not covered under the provisions of this paragraph.

1 8 7

To establish post-offices and post-roads:

No powers over the People are granted in this paragraph.

1 8 8

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:

No powers over the People are granted, just the power to protect the patents and copyrights of the People.

1 8 9

To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court:

Congress can create inferior Courts under the Supreme Court. As you will see, in Article 3, the Federal Government can only deal in Maritime and Equity law, not Common Law, therefore these courts can only deal in Maritime and Equity law matters. The People are subject to the provisions of Common Law. This paragraph does not grant any power over the People.

1 8 10

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offences against the law of nations:

The Government is granted the power to punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the High Seas and offences. These crimes are under Maritime Law. The Government has the right to use Maritime Law, which is also referred to as International Law

1 8 11

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

Congress is given the power to declare war, and to oversee the conduct, of a war. No powers over the People are granted.

1 8 12

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years:

When the Constitution was written this country was isolated from Europe by a 4 month sea voyage. With the Militia - which consisted of all able bodied men over the age of 16 - There was no need for a standing army. The two year restriction meant that every two years a new Congress would have to approve the funds for any army. This paragraph grants no power over the People.

1 8 13

To provide and maintain a navy:

Even though a standing army was not necessary, a standing navy was. Everything that was done with Foreign travel, diplomacy, and trade was over the seas. To protect our ships, a standing navy was required. No powers over the People are granted

1 8 14

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces:

If we grant the government the power to raise armies and navies, then we must grant them the power to make rules to regulate their actions and activities. No powers over the People are granted

1 8 15

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions:

The Militia, as defined above, was the first line of defense for the country. The government had to be empowered to call it upon when necessary. The clause that provides for the militia to execute the laws of the union applies only to enforcing the Maritime and Equity laws the government is empowered to deal with. The government cannot use the Militia, or any form of the Military against the People, except in the case of an insurrection - which is an armed uprising to overthrow the Constitutional Law of the Land. Insurrection does not include the People using their rights to "amend or abolish their government in order to establish a government they feel will better effect their safety and happiness." This falls under the provisions of the Posse Comitatas Laws. No powers over the People are granted

1 8 16

To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress:

The Federal Government has the power to provide for the training of the Militia, but the States retained the right to appoint the officers and conduct the training. No powers over the People are granted

1 8 17

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: And,

Congress is granted the exclusive power to legislate for the District of Columbia (the ten mile square property mentioned)and such other property as is owned by the Federal Government. BUT - the Federal Government is restricted to ownership of forts, magazines, aresenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings, provided the Federal Govelrnment has purchased the land, with the consent of the State Legislature. Which category do the National Forests, the BLM Land and National Parks fit into? And, can the Federal Government show where it has purchased the land with the consent of the State legislature

1 8 18

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

We are now at the end of the Section where the powers are enumerated for the Federal Government, and, other than treason, counterfeiting, and crimes on the high seas, no powers over the People are granted. Therefore Congress does not have the power to create laws to oppress, control, abuse, persecute, or prosecute the People in any manner.

Congress is granted the authority to pass what laws are necessary to use the powers granted by the Constitution.

1 9 1

The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year 1808, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importations, not exceeding 10 dollars for each person.

This Paragraph ends slavery in the year 1808. No powers over the People are granted

1 9 2

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

The Government's ability to suspend the use of Habeas Corpus is restricted. No power over the People is granted.

1 9 3

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

The Government cannot create Bills of Attainder or Ex Post Facto Laws. Bills of Attainder refer to laws that affect the family and posterity of someone who has committed a crime. Ex Post Facto is Latin meaning After the Fact. The government cannot pass a law that allows the persecution or prosecution of someone who did something before the law was effective.

1 9 4

No capitation, or other direct tax shall be laid unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.
See the Sixteenth Amendment

The taxes were to be levied on the States, not the People, and even then in proportion to the census. This does not grant any powers over the People.

1 9 5

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

That's pretty clear - but, what do they do about the semi-trucks that stop and pay duties when they enter a State? No powers over the People are granted

1 9 6

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

All of the States are to be treated equally. Here again, what do they do about the trucks that must clear the "entry port" in order to enter a State. No powers over the People are granted

1 9 7

No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

The Federal Government may only draw what funds have been appropriated by law and they must publish an accounting. No powers over the People are granted

1 9 8

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office or profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

This Country had just won the War of Independence and was very suspicious of Royalty and their aides, the Foreign Bankers and Attorneys. Our Founding Fathers did not want anyone sympathetic to England having any ability to upset the process of setting up our nation. This provision will still protect us from Foreign Agents, if we apply it. No powers over the People are granted

1 10 1

No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

The Federal Government was granted all rights to International dealings so the States are restricted from entering into International Treaties and Agreements. In keeping with the provisions that the Federal Government can only deal in coins, the States are also restricted to coins. The States are also restricted from passing Bills of Attainder and ex post facto laws. The States are also restricted from delving into Equity law which deals with contracts. Equity law is the province of the Federal Government. No powers over the People are granted

1 10 2

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

The States are precluded from International dealings. All fees collected by the States are to be given to the Federal Government. No powers over the People are granted

1 10 3

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in a war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

No powers over the People are granted

2
Executive Branch
1 1

The Executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold office during the term of four years, and together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows.

Executive Power does not carry with it the power to create laws - that's Legislative Powers, and the President doesn't have any Legislative Power. The "Executive Orders" that purport to make laws are unconstitutional. They are of no lawful force or effect. They are null and void from the beginning - ab initio.

The Executive Power is vested in the President of the United States.

No powers over the People are granted.

2
Executive Branch
1 2

Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector

This Paragraph establishes the Electoral College. No powers over the People are granted.

2 1 3

[The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves, And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.]
Changed by the Twelfth Amendment

This Section establishes the procedure for counting the votes. No powers over the People are granted

2 1 4

The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

Congress has to power to set voting dates. No powers over the People are granted.

2 1 5

No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States, at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

This Paragraph establishes the requirements for serving as President of the United States. No powers over the People are granted

2 1 6

[In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation, or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.]
Changed by the Twenty-fifth Amendment

This Paragraph establishes a sequence of succession to the office of President. No powers over the People are granted.

2 1 7

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.

The President will be paid for his services. No powers over the People are granted

2 1 8

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of the President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."

The President must take an Oath of Office before he can take office. No powers over the People are granted

2 2 1

The President shall be Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

The President is the Commander-in-Chief of the Military. No powers over the People are granted

2 2 2

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The President can negotiate Treaties and appoint Officers of the Government, with the advice and consent of the Senate. No powers over the People are granted

2 2 3

The President shall have the power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions, which shall expire at the end of their next session

The President can fill vacancies in the Executive and Judicial Branches when they occur while the Senate is in recess. No powers over the People are granted

2 3 -

He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he may receive ambassadors, and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the officers of the United States.

The President will report the State of the Union to the Country. No powers over the People are granted

2 4

-

The President, Vice President, and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Conditions under which the Government officials may be impeached. No powers over the People are granted

3
Judicial Branch
1 -

The judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

All judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as Congress may create. The Judges will be paid. No powers over the People are granted. The Judicial Branch has no Power to enact laws that would be binding upon the People.

3 2 1

The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, [and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.]
Changed by the Eleventh Amendment

The Federal Government has jurisdiction of cases of equity law and admiralty and maritime law. No powers over the People are granted.

3 2 2

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be a party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction, In all the other cases before-mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

No powers over the People are granted

3 2 3 The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed. The Judicial Branch has no Power to enact laws that would be binding upon the People. No powers over the People are granted
3 3 1

Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

No powers over the People are granted

3 3 2

The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

No powers over the People are granted

4 1 -

Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other state. And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

No powers over the People are granted

4 2 1

The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

No powers over the People are granted

4 2 2

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

No powers over the People are granted

4 2 3

No person held to service or labour in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labour, but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labour may be due.

No powers over the People are granted

4 3 1

New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the Congress.

No powers over the People are granted

4 3 2

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

No powers over the People are granted

4 4 -

The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union, a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

No powers over the People are granted

5 - -

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constitution, or on the application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress: Provided, that no amendment which may be made prior to the year 1808, shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.

No powers over the People are granted

6 - 1

All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.

No powers over the People are granted

6 - 2

This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.

No powers over the People are granted

6 - 3

The senators and representatives before-mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

No powers over the People are granted

7 - 1

The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

No powers over the People are granted

7 - 2

Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth

No powers over the People are granted

Bill of Rights

Preamble
- -

Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York, on Wednesday the fourth of March, one thousand seven hundred and eighty nine.

THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added: And as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government, will best ensure the beneficent ends of its institution.

RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, two thirds of both Houses concurring, that the following Articles be proposed to the Legislatures of the several States, as amendments to the Constitution of the United States, all, or any of which Articles, when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of the said Constitution; viz.

ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to the fifth Article of the original Constitution.

This Bill of Rights is an Amendment to the Constitution because it added additional Articles to the Constitution, but it made no changes in any of the already existing Articles.

When the Constitution was adopted by the States, many of the States wanted more restraints on the powers of the Federal Government. Twelve Additional Articles were proposed to be added to the Constitution. Only 10 were finally approved. All of the provisions in the Bill of Rights are Declaratory - meaning that the People mandated these provisions, and restrictive - meaning the government officials have no power to modify, interpret, expand, or otherwise adjust these provisions. No powers over the People are granted anywhere in the Bill of Rights, it is entirely the other way around. The Bill of Rights places severe restrictions on the powers of the Government.

The Preamble to the Bill of Rights is its Enacting Clause. That makes it a valid Law from the People. Because it is the Law of the People, it is all based on protecting our Common Law System from the Civil Law System that our government was permitted to use in International Affairs.

The Preamble establishes the fact that the actions of the Congress were in compliance with the Amendment Procedures established in the Constitution, and says that the following ten Articles were properly ratified by the States.

1 - -

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

These Freedoms are our unalienable rights. They cannot be violated, or even infringes upon, by our Federal or State Governments, or other individuals. In order to fully understand the purposes behind this Article it is necessary to note that the People were not only subject to a King, but the King was the head of the Church. Enland, at that time called itself a Monarchy, but it functioned almost as a Theocracy. Between the two positions held by the King, the rights of the People were routinely violated. Our Founding Fathers wanted to make sure that no one would ever try to establish a national church in the united States or restrict in any way our ability to enjoy all of our unalienable rights. This provision has been so convoluted that we have just about established Atheism as our national religion

2 - -

A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

Under our Common Law, which was, and still is, the basis of all valid laws in this country, the Militia - which consisted of every able bodied male over the age of 16 - was, and still is, the first line of defense against any problems. In order to be effective it is necessary that the Militia be well armed and ready to suppress any problems immediately. To disarm the People is not only a violation of this Article it is a violation of our basic right of self defense. The fact that we joined together to form a government is evidence that we used our basic right of self defense in a mutual compact to make us all stronger. For the government to pass laws against ownership of weapons of self defense is a violation of the trust we placed in our government.

3 - -

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Before our War of Independence British Soldiers were quartered in private houses. Not only did the People have to put up with a stranger in the house, but they had to feed him, and got nothing in return. Is it any wonder this provision is here?

4 - -

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Remember, the Federal government was granted the right to the Maritime and Equity systems of laws. Neither of these have any power over the People. We, the People, reserved all facets of Common to ourselves. Common Law has the exclusive venue of People and the Property. All actions, including the issuance of Warrants are the sole and exclusive right of the Common Law. The Attorneys, Judges, and Politicians have carefully denegrated our system of Common Law in order to destroy it. With the destruction of the Common Law the People lost their ability to effectively control our government through the actions of the Common Law Courts.

5 - -

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

Here again, these are Common Law functions because they deal with the People. As you should have noted in going through this chart, other than Crimes committed on the high seas, and counterfeiting of the coin and currency of the country, there are no powers granted to the government where it could persecute or prosecute anyone.

6 - -

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

These provisions are all Common Law provisions. Common Law trials must have a jury - which jury is made up from the members of the community at large and also serves as twelve judges - so the person is judged by a jury of their peers. Under Common Law, only people who have been damaged may bring a suit, and the accused (which is a Common Law term - not Defendant which is a Civil Law term) has the right to be confronted by the witnesses at every step of the process. The current Grand Jury System is an evil take-off on the true Grand Jury system under Common Law.

7 - -

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

This Article proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that the Articles in the Bill of Rights pertain to Common Law. Because a case heard by a Common Law jury has been heard by the People, and because the neither the Federal Government, nor any State Government has any Common Law Powers they cannot review the findings in their own courts, they must bring it before the Common Law Court.

8 - -

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Rights established to protect those who have been accused of wrong doings. Remember, under Common Law, a person is truly innocent until proven guilty. It is up to the accuser to prove, beyond a shadow of a doubt, that the person damaged them.

9 - -

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Even though the People may grant powers to the Federal Government, or to their State Government, they do not grant the exclusive use of those powers. The People always have the full and uninhibited right to use any and all of their unalienable rights whenever they find it necessary to protect themselves. If that were not true We, the People, would not be able to Amend or Abolish a government that has run amuck, and replace it with a government that seems more likely to secure our Freedom, our Liberty, our Safety, and our Happiness, so we can pass them on to our posterity.

10 - -

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

Here again, We, the People, are the ones who dictate who has what powers, and what they can do with them. The Federal and State Constitutions were written by We, the People, they belong to We, the People, and they are for the sole benefit of We, the People - not our public servants.

Amendments

11
- -

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

The Government of the United States was established for the sole purpose of securing our unalienable rights. For the Federal Government to refuse to assist one of We, the People, in our suit against another State is a denial of our due process under the law, and a denial of our right of redress against our various government entities. This Amendment is unconstitutional because it reneges on our governments basic responsibilty of protecting our rights. This Amendment grants no power over the People to the government.

12 - -

The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; - The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, [before the fourth day of March next following,] then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such numbers be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two- thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

This Amendment changes the procedure for handling the electors in an election for President of the United States. No powers over the People are granted

13 1 -

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

The importation of slaves was prohibited by the Constitution in 1808. This Amendment was passed right after the Civil War. What slaves were still held at the time, were the descendants of those earlier slaves. In our Declaration of Independence the claim was made that "all men are created equal." Finally, after nearly 100 years, the practice of slavery came to an abrupt end.

13 2 -

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

14 1 -

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor to deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

The Fourteenth Amendment was passed right after the Civil War. On its face it confirms the equality of all people and makes everyone a Citizen of the United States. When it was presented to the States for ratification the provisions in Paragraph 2 caused the Southern States to vote against ratification. The U. S. Military removed the validly elected members of the Legislatures of these States and replaced them will military personnel. History refers to these legislators as "RUMP" Legislators. This was done under the pretext that the States were not yet back in good standing after their cessation during the Civil War. But, the Federal officials were happy to count their ratification votes on the 13th Amendment without any question about the status of their State. This Amendments was never validly ratified and is therefore unconstitutional.

14 2 -

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of Electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.
This makes changes to Article 1, Section 2, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution

When this Amendment was submitted to the States for ratification, the Southern States had problems with the provisions concerning the penalties for "participation in rebellion" and refused to ratify the Amendment. It was passed by unconstitutional means and is therefore invalid.

14 3 -

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State Legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

The provisions that say "have engaged in insurrection or rebellion" and "given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof" caused the Southern States to refuse to ratify this Amendment. It was passed by unconstitutional means and is therefore invalid.

14 4 -

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Here again, the Southern States felt they were being unreasonably picked-on and refused to ratify the Amendment. The various penalties and costs that could be levied against the Southern States and the People stopped the ratification process. It was passed by unconstitutional means and is therefore invalid.

14 5 -

The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

15 1 -

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

This is an interesting Amendment. If we truly lived by our "all men are created equal" this is a totally unnecessary Amendment. But, who says were perfect.

15 2 -

The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

16 - -

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

The Federal Government is enforcing this by its unlawful law enforcement powers. Even though the U. S. Supreme Court has ruled many times that this Amendment does not grant the government any additional powers because INCOME is defined as the profits earned by a corporation - the the exchange of a persons labor for money. The legal opinion, written by J. Ruben Clark, Jr., whom the Brigham Young University Law School is named for, wrote the legal opinion and clearly stated that not one State properly ratified the Amendment. Draw your own conclusions.

17 - 1

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State Legislatures.

This Amendment reversed the compromise that was reached by the delegates to the Federal Convention when they wrote the Constitution. After a lengthy and bitter debate it was decided that the Senators would be appointed by the States so they would not be subject to the political whims of the People. The Senators were to represent the States, not the People. By destroying this compromise the Federal Government was able to do things that would destroy the right of the States to control the Federal Government.

17 - 2

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the Legislature of any State may empower the Executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the Legislature may direct.

The provision that this changed was the fact that the Legislature would fill and vacancies. Now they could pass that duty on to the Governor.

17 - 3

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

This Amendment did not affect anyone who was currently elected to an office.

18 1 -

After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.

This is the Prohibition Amendment that stopped the sale, and consumption, of liquor. This Amendment was repealed by the Twenty-First Amendment.

18 2 -

The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

18 3 -

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

This is the first time a time limit has been set on the ratification of an Amendment.

19 - 1

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Here again, this is an entirely unnecessary Amendment, if we are living up to our claim in the Declaration of Independence. Namely - "all men are created equal" - if we are honest with ourselves, this includes women.

19 - 2

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

20 1 -

The terms of the President and the Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3rd day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

The 20th Amendment changed the dates of the changing of the guard. This merely changed the day when the old guard left and the replacement took office.

20 2 -

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3rd day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

This changed the day when Congress meets.

20 3 -

If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice-President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice-President shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice-President shall have qualified.

This is simply an order of succession to the Presidency.

20 4 -

The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice- President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

More order of succession.

20 5 -

Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article (October 1933).

Setting the date when the Amendment will take effect.

20 6 -

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

Sets a time limit on getting the Amendment ratified.

21 1 -

The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.

Repeal of the 18th Amendment.

21 2 -

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.

Repeal of the 18th Amendment.

21 3 -

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.

Time limit for ratification.

22 1 -

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.

Term Limitation on the Presidency.

22 2 -

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission to the states by the Congress.

Time limit for ratification.

23 1 1

The District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct:

Those living in Washington DC are granted the opportunity to vote for President.

23 1 2

A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a state, but in no event more than the least populous state; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the states, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a state; and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.

Procedure whereby the People living in Washington DC will be able to vote for President.

23 2 -

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

24 1 -

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Poll taxes are banned.

24 2 -

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

25 1 -

In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Vice President to take over in case the President is unable to continue

25 2 -

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Selection of new Vice President in case of need.

25 3 -

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Succession rulings.

25 4 1

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.

Succession rulings.

25 4 2

Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Succession rulings.

26 1 -

The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of age.

Lowers the voting age to 18

26 2 -

The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

This clause is a blatant grab for power. This is vague enough that the Federal Government could use this as an excuse to bring the People under the Civil - which is where they are persecuting and prosecuting now.

27 - -

No law varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and Representatives shall take effect until an election of Representatives shall have intervened.

Pay raises for Congress will not take effect until there has been another election.

Changes Article 1, Section 9, Paragraph 4.

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