The Constitution for the United States of America

Article 3
Section 2 - Paragraph 1

The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state, claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

Changed by the Eleventh Amendment

The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made, under their Authority;

The judicial Power is for all Cases arising under the provisions of this Constitution, the Laws that have been created by the Congress in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, and any Treaties made by the Executive Branch.

to all Cases affecting

Then the cases are specifically enumerated to detail exactly which situations are under the power and control of the Judicial Branch.

Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls;

These are the International Representatives of the Federal Government and should fall under the power of the Judicial Branch for their protection.

to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;

This is the system of laws that have been granted to the Federal Government by We the People, and properly comes under the power of the Judicial Branch.

to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party;

This follows naturally.

to Controversies between two or more States;

This also follows naturally. Since the Constitution is a Treaty between the States it is only right that the Treaty Organization, the Federal Government should have the power to resolve the issue.

between a State and Citizens of another State;

Even though is it a Citizen of another State it is still virtually two States in a controversy.

between Citizens of different States;

With Citizens of different States they have no common neutral jurisdiction to turn to, therefore, the Federal Government has jurisdiction.

between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands under Grants of different States;

This again is a controversy that crosses State Borders and enters into different State Jurisdictions, therefore the Federal Government is granted Jurisdiction.

and between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects.

This falls within the purvue of International Law and is therefore the proper Jurisdication of the Federal Government.

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